Architectural drawing is a graphic representation resource widely used in civil construction, being indispensable for any professional who wishes to work in this area.
Unlike what many people think, learning architectural drawing is not difficult since we use drawing tools such as a ruler and a square, or the most common specialized software.
If you still have doubts about what architectural design is or where to start learning to make your own projects, this publication was made for you.
In other words, architectural drawing is a set of sketches, projections, views, sections and various details that enable the reading and execution of a work.
It is the main form of communication among civil construction professionals, it includes a standardized technical language which uses drawing and graphic symbols as a means to transmit project information.
The architectural design must be represented following national and international technical standards, which determines the scale used in the drawings, the type and thickness of the lines, plus the use of technical symbology.
All graphic elements present in the drawing have a purpose that must be understood by both the sender (designer) and the receiver (project reader).
Architectural design plays a fundamental role in the final quality of a construction, facilitating the understanding of everyone involved in the execution of the project and avoiding improvisation within the construction site.
Furthermore, the architectural project allows us to validate the project proposal, communicating ideas and concepts, in addition to functioning as a documentary record of the work, which must be approved by the city hall before starting its execution.
Given its importance it is essential that it is carefully prepared; representing each construction element accurately and, of course, following the technical standards of the country towards the project is destined.
Architectural design is a graphic language, that is, we employ patterns such as:
It is important that it is clear how these standards should be represented, so that information is communicated clearly and assertively, so let's get to know the main elements:
Lines can be understood as the main graphic element of any architectural drawing.
Walls, doors, windows, beams and several other elements are represented by lines, but how to differentiate or even emphasize certain objects present in the project?
The simplest way is to use different line thicknesses, among which we have:
For representations of structural elements in plan such as beams, columns, slabs, etc., we use a wide continuous line, which corresponds to a strong line.
For interpretation purposes, you can consider the strong stroke the equivalent of a 0.7 or 0.9mm mechanical pencil.
Used to represent most elements of the view such as floor plan, section planes, walls in plan and view, etc.
We can consider a medium stroke the equivalent of a 0.5mm mechanical pencil.
Used in the representation of elements such as textures and coatings such as floor paging, hatching and also the part of the drawing where the notes go, such as dimensions, leader lines, etc.
A tip for fine lines is to work with shades of gray for fine lines, this way it is possible to have a fine line pattern for an element type that needs highlighting and another in gray for less prominent elements.
Perspective is a drawing technique that employs descriptive geometry, which is nothing more than representing three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane (paper) respecting their true dimensions.
There are a number of techniques for representing an architectural drawing in perspective, some more like a human vision, like the conical perspective, or more techniques like the axonometric perspective.
The representation of a drawing in views is performed through orthogonal projection, which is a way of graphically representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface, conveying their characteristics accurately.
Imagine a three-dimensional object inside a cube and, projecting all possible views, we have a total of six views. Now let's open this same cube and check the result.
In this way, it is possible to represent all views of a building, allowing a better understanding of the architectural project proposal.
Scale is a relation of proportion between the real dimensions of the object and the drawing dimensions of the same object, preserving its proportions.
Basically we can represent an object in three scales: magnification scale, reduction scale and the real scale.
To do the architectural drawing of a building, even a small house, we're not going to be able to use its real-world measurements, so we need to use the scale of reduction.
To represent very small details of a building, it may be necessary to use the real scale or even the magnification scale.
The architectural design condenses a series of information, ideas and solutions for a building which must be communicated to everyone involved in that project, from customers to the construction team.
The elaboration of an architectural drawing is the result of a series of studies and prior planning, so it is necessary that all the information needed is already available prior to the beginning of the project.
Having a well-defined program of needs, terrain information and climate data is essential before starting any project.
With this information in hand, it is now possible to start your architectural design, which can be instrumented (by hand) or through software.
Currently, architectural projects are developed with the help of specialized software, which in addition to optimizing the entire process, offers a series of other features.
But how to choose a good software for architectural design?
This is a very common question so I'm going to comment a little about the main software we find in the market today. Let 's go through some of them !
AutoCAD is the most traditional software in the civil construction sector for the preparation of architectural projects, managing to meet all the needs for the preparation, documentation and printing of any project.
AutoCAD can be understood as an electronic clipboard, where you can represent any geometric shape, just like we do on paper, but in a much faster and more efficient way.
Sketchup is extremely popular for the elaboration of 3D projects but today it has the LayOut tool, allowing you to create architectural drawings in a simple and practical way.
Sketchup is a very intuitive software and even with very simple tools, it allows us to elaborate complete projects.
Revit is a software that works with the BIM process, where the project is understood as a construction database, facilitating both the elaboration of the architectural drawing as well as the quantity of materials.
Within Revit, we were able to develop, in addition to architectural design, other disciplines such as electrical, plumbing, lighting, among others.
A fact that can be the difference in an architectural project made in Revit is the use of quality blocks, so ensure now your access to the best families of Revit blocks to delight others with your project!
Technical drawing is a form of graphic expression used to represent shapes, respecting their characteristics and dimensions.
Therefore, it has the important function of helping to transmit an idea graphically, allowing its manufacture or execution.
Due to its simple and precise process, it is used in several sectors, such as architecture.
Architectural drawing, on the other hand, is a specialized branch of technical design, which has the same technical base, but employs technical standards aimed at civil construction.
Architectural drawing is a prerequisite for any professional who wants to work in the civil construction area, which, unlike what many people think, is simple to understand and easy to learn.
Architectural design is far beyond a simple design but a communication tool within any work, and it shares the idea proposed for a building.
Another must-have for your project is to have a good collection of templates on hand to use in your projects, so get ahead by using Blocks Revit's family library, which has a huge catalog with weekly updates!
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